Antrostomus carolinensis

Status:  Rare regular breeder east. Casual summer visitor central. Rare casual fall migrant east.

Documentation:  Photograph: 4 Jun 1983 nest with egg and hatchling, Camp Merrill, Saunders Co (Lingle 1983).

Taxonomy:  This species and 10 others previously in Caprimulgus were moved to Antrostomus based on Han et al (2010).  No subspecies are recognized.

Changes Since 2000: The number of reports of this species has continued to increase in its stronghold in the lower Missouri River Valley, with additional reports west of the Missouri River Valley just north of the Kansas border, especially in Jefferson County. Whether these additional reports are due to increased detection by observers or ongoing range expansion by the species, or both, is not fully known.

Spring:  Apr 23, 27,2 9 <<<>>> summer

Arrival is in early May.

  • High counts:  9 along River Road, Jefferson Co 25 May 2018, 6 at Indian Cave SP, Nemaha and Richardson Cos, 2 May 2003, and 5 there 27 Apr 2013.

Summer: This species was first noted in Nebraska in 1963 in western Douglas Co, where it was heard by residents and eventually verified in 1966 (Sharpe 1967). Following this first record, another bird was heard for about a month near Peru mid-May to mid-Jun 1965 (Gates 1965). At about the same time 2-3 were heard in Indian Cave SP, Nemaha and Richardson Cos 24 May 1966 (Sharpe 1967) and at least eight were there 3 May 1969, when it was considered “clearly more common” than in 1966 (Tate 1969). There are numerous reports since from Indian Cave SP, including a tally of six there 30 Jun 2010, and the state’s second documented nest, containing one chick, was photographed there 6 Jun 2012.

It occurs along the Missouri River Valley with some regularity north to Dakota Co, where the earliest report was 13 Jun 1988, and it has been reported there each year since 1990 in the period 6 May-14 Jun. There is a single Dixon Co report, 14 May 1993, and singles were at Wiseman WMA, Cedar Co 16 Jun 2011 and 24 May 2013. Surprisingly, one was heard at Bohemia Prairie, Knox Co, 7 Jul 2008, the northernmost record for the state; at least one was there 10-28 Jul 2009, one each 15 May and 14 Jun 2010, and one 17 May 2012. Another site for Knox Co is along the south shore of Lewis and Clark Lake near Gavin’s Point Dam, where one was heard 7 May 2012 and seen and recorded 21-25 May 2018 and 8 Jun 2018.

It has been found as far west in the Platte River Valley as Camp Merrill in northwest Saunders Co, some 9 km (5-6 miles) west of Morse Bluff; the first documented nesting for the state occurred there 4 Jun 1983. There have been reports in the area since 1978 (Lingle 1983); up to three birds each year were reported in the Morse Bluff area 1991-2003.

One was heard at Oak Glen WMA, Seward Co, 8-29 Jul 2006, and again there 16 and 18 Jul 2007; none were detected in 2008 and 2009, but 1-2 were there 17-26 May 2010, one on 15 Jun 2011, one on 12 May 2012, and one on 1 May and 1 Jun 2015.  None were heard in 2016 nor reported in 2017.

The status of Chuck-will’s-widow in the counties along the Kansas border has only recently been realized; in Kansas, it summers west to Washington Co, to the south of Jefferson Co, Nebraska, and there are recent reports west to Jewell and Phillips Cos, Kansas, the latter south of Harlan Co, Nebraska. Reports are few between the Missouri River Valley and Jefferson Co in Nebraska (see below), and the recent numbers found in Jefferson Co suggest Chuck-will’s-widows previously went undetected in this area or are moving north from Kansas rather than west from the Missouri River Valley. In Jefferson Co, eight were in the Little Blue River Valley near Fairbury 21 Jul 2011, 12 were heard there 9 Jul 2012, and two on 24 Jun 2015. In 2016 in the Little Blue River drainage northwest of Fairbury, as many as nine were counted 15 Jun. Two were heard at Rock Glen WMA, Jefferson Co 7 May 2012, and one was at Rock Creek Station SHP, Jefferson Co 1 Jul 2017. Further west, Mollhoff (2001) cited “probable” breeding records in Thayer Co and a “possible” breeding record in Webster Co in the period 1984-89, but none of these were repeated 20 years later (Mollhoff 2016). One was along the Little Blue River east of Hebron in Thayer Co 11 Jul 2013 and 2 were nearby at Meridian WMA 29 May 2013. The westernmost record in the Republican River Valley is of one at Harlan Co Reservoir 4 Jul 2017. Reports between the Missouri River Valley and Jefferson Co are of one heard in eastern Lancaster Co Jun 2002 and 2003 (Kevin Poague, personal communication), 18 Jun 1985 Johnson Co, 2 Jun 1985 and 21 Jun 1987 Seward Co, two calling two miles east of Barneston, Gage Co 30 May 2009, and 18 Jun 1985 Gage Co.

For a few years, Chuck-will’s-widows were found in the Fort Kearny area on the Buffalo-Kearney Cos line, where one bird was heard singing in summer 1997 (Silcock and Jorgensen 1997), 13 May-16 Jun 2000, 24 Jun 2001, and 8 May 2002. It had been reported in that area as early as 19-29 Jun 1983, when one was reported 14.5 km (9 miles) southeast of Kearney on the south bank of the Platte River (Kimball 1984).

There are two reports of vagrants, if correctly identified: one was in mixed conifers and hardwoods in Thomas Co 13 Jun 1983 (Dwyer 1988), a report considered hypothetical by Bray (1994), and another was reported far to the northwest at Smith Lake SRA, Sheridan Co, in 1995. Oddly, it has bred in only a single South Dakota location since the 1980s, that in the center of the state (Tallman et al 2002).

Fall:  Departure is probably in Sep based on data from nearby states, although the only Nebraska reports after Jun are 17 Jul 1992 Saunders Co, 19 Jul 1990 Douglas Co, 4 Aug 2001 Saunders Co, 8 Aug 1983 Cass Co (Green 1984), 9 Aug 2003 Wolf Lake, Saunders Co, 15 Aug (Johnsgard 1980), and 18 Aug 2000 Wolf Lake. The latest Kansas date is 16 Sep (Thompson et al 2011). Detection is difficult after singing ceases in early Jul.


SHP: State Historical Park
SP: State Park
SRA: State Recreation Area
WMA: Wildlife Management Area (State)

Literature Cited

Bray, T.E. 1994. Habitat utilization by birds in a man-made forest in the Nebraska Sandhills. Master’s thesis, University of Nebraska-Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Dwyer, M. 1988. Additional reports from Thomas County, spring 1988. NBR 56: 99.

Gates, D. 1965. Excerpts from letters. NBR 33: 67.

Green, R.C. 1984. Whip-poor-wills. NBR 52: 24.

Han, L-K., M.B. Robbins, and M.J. Braun. 2010. A Multi-gene Estimate of Phylogeny in the Nightjars and Nighthawks (Caprimulgidae).  Molecular Phylogenetic Evolution 55: 443-453.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1980. A preliminary list of the birds of Nebraska and adjacent Great Plains states. Published by the author, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA.

Kimball, B. 1984. Chuck-will’s-widow. NBR 52: 24.

Lingle, G.R. 1983. A new nesting species for Nebraska. NBR 51: 86-87.

Mollhoff, W.J. 2001. The Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas 1984-1989. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Papers No. 7. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Mollhoff, W.J. 2016. The Second Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas. Bull. Univ. Nebraska State Museum Vol 29. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Sharpe, R.S, 1967. The 1966 nesting season. NBR 35: 29-38.

Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 1997. Summer Field Report. June-July 1997. NBR 65: 102-115.

Tallman, D.A., Swanson, D.L., and J.S. Palmer. 2002. Birds of South Dakota. Midstates/Quality Quick Print, Aberdeen, South Dakota, USA.

Tate, J., Jr. 1969. Pileated Woodpecker and other birds at Indian Cave State Park. NBR 37: 57-60.

Thompson, M.C., C.A. Ely, B. Gress, C. Otte, S.T. Patti, D. Seibel, and E.A. Young. 2011. Birds of Kansas.  University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Recommended Citation

Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen.  2018.  Chuck-will’s-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online.

Birds of Nebraska – Online