Status: Common regular spring and fall migrant and breeder statewide.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM11592, 10 May 1892 Jamaica, Lancaster Co.
Taxonomy: A recent revision by Chesser et al (2018) changed the order of subfamilies within the Tyrannidae, placing Tyranninae (Nebraska-occurring genera Myiarchus, Pitangus, Tyrannus) ahead of Fluvicolinae (Nebraska-occurring genera Contopus, Empidonax, Sayornis, Pyrocephalus). We follow this order of genera.
No subspecies are recognized (Gill et al 2022).
Hybridization between this species and Western Kingbird is rare; there about 11 examples spread across North America, closest to Nebraska was one photographed in Lincoln Co, Colorado 10 Jun 2012 (eBird.org. accessed Nov 2023; Gamble and Bergin 2020). A mixed mating may have occurred in Keith Co in 1994, when adults of Eastern and Western Kingbirds were tending a nest together; the nest was destroyed by grackles before the plumages of the young could be determined (Brown et al 1996).
Spring: Apr 20, 21, 21 <<<>>> summer
Earlier dates are 25 Mar 2015 Harlan Co Reservoir, Harlan Co, 10 Apr 2000 Garfield Co, 13 Apr 2007 Douglas Co, 13 Apr 2012 Buffalo Co, and 18 Apr 2017 Lancaster Co.
Peak migration, as indicated by High Counts, is around 10-15 May. Arrival is in mid-Apr, although there are early undocumented reports, some or all of which may have been misidentified Eastern Phoebes. An aggregation of 77 in a four-acre area of a field in southeast Washington Co 26 May 2013 suggests migration extends through most of May.
- High counts: 269 in Hall Co 13 May 2006, 196 at Harlan Co Reservoir, Harlan Co 12 May 2004, and 158 in Hall Co 10 May 2003.
Summer: This species is generally more numerous than Western Kingbird in the north and east, and less numerous than that species in the Panhandle, although BBS and eBird data indicate more even distribution across the state. Counts made across the state 15-17 May 2005 showed a Western: Eastern Kingbird ratio east of the Panhandle (six counties) of 302:112 and in the Panhandle (four counties) 213:31 (Stephen J. Dinsmore, personal communication).
Mollhoff (2004) noted that nesting was nearly synchronous across the state in 2002, with egg-laying in the east 19 Jun and incubation underway in Morrill and Sheridan Cos 22-23 Jun.
- Breeding Phenology:
Nest-building: 2-10 Jun
Eggs: 3 May-26 Jul
Nestlings: 5 Jun-24 Jul
Fledglings: 17 Jun-4 Aug
Fall: summer <<<>>> Sep 30, Oct 1, 2
Later dates are 5 Oct 2022 Douglas Co, 6 Oct 2014 Lancaster Co, and 7 Oct 2019 Kearney Co.
Migration may begin as early as late Jul and peak migration occurs during the second half of Aug; 50 were at Branched Oak Lake, Lancaster Co 18 Jul 2020, 46 were counted in southwest Dixon Co 30 Jul 2000, 42 in Lancaster Co 30 Jul 2009, and 31 in Keith Co 28 Jul 2001. Departure is in mid-Sep.
- High counts: 500+ in Cherry Co 1 Sep 2007, 200 near Valparaiso, Lancaster Co 6 Sep 2019, “hundreds” in Lincoln, Lancaster Co 27 Aug 2011, and 197 in Otoe Co 14 Aug 2005 (including 126 counted in 37 miles).
BBS: Breeding Bird Survey
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
Brown, C.R., M.B. Brown, P.A. Johnsgard, J. Kren, and W.C. Scharf. 1996. Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station area, Keith and Garden Counties, Nebraska: Seasonal occurrence and breeding data. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 23: 91-108.
Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., D.F. Stotz, B.M. Winger, and K. Winker. 2018. Fifty-ninth Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 135: 798-813. https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-18-62.1.
Gamble, L.R. and T.M. Bergin. 2020. Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.weskin.01.
Gill, F., D. Donsker, and P. Rasmussen (Eds). 2022. IOC World Bird List (v 12.2). Doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.12.2. http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2004. The 2002 Nebraska Nesting Report. NBR 72: 153-158.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2023. Eastern Kingbird (Tryannus tyrannus). In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org
Birds of Nebraska – Online
Updated 4 Nov 2023