EASTERN PHOEBE

Sayornis phoebe

Status:  Common regular spring and fall migrant east and central, uncommon west. Fairly common regular breeder east and east-central, rare west-central and Pine Ridge, rare casual elsewhere.

Documentation:  Specimen: UNSM ZM6367, 21 Mar 1903 Lancaster Co.

Taxonomy:  No subspecies are recognized (Pyle 1997).

Spring:  Mar 4,4,5 <<<>>> summer (south, east), Mar 19,20,24 <<<>>> summer (north, west)

Eastern Phoebe is the earliest-arriving flycatcher, arriving in mid-Mar, later in the north and west. Earlier dates in the north and west are 9 Mar 2016 Greeley Co, 13 Mar 2012 Lincoln Co, and 16 Mar 2013 Lincoln Co.

  • High counts:  50 in Knox Co 31 Mar 2012, “a few dozen” in Fontenelle Forest, Sarpy Co 11 Apr 2013, 25 at Fremont Lakes SRA, Dodge Co 22 Apr 2018, 13 at Heron Haven, Douglas Co 15 Apr 2018, and 12 at Verdon Lake SRA, Richardson Co 9 Apr 2018.

Summer:  BBS data indicate that Eastern Phoebe is most common in the east and east-central (Sauer et al. 2017; it is least abundant in the western Sandhills and Panhandle away from the North Platte River Valley and the Pine Ridge (eBird, accessed Jun 2016).  Where it occurs in the western half of Nebraska, Eastern Phoebe tends to be associated with river valleys, whereas in the eastern half of the state it is widespread.  Based on available reports there is minimal evidence for westward expansion; it has traditionally been considered eastern in distribution (Bruner et al 1904, Thompson et al 2011, Weeks 2011). It is a “very rare summer resident” in Wyoming (Faulkner 2010).  However, BBS trend analysis shows the species has increased annually a notable 2.99% (95% C.I.; 1.19, 4.66) during the period 1966-2015 (Sauer et al 2017).

In the north it is common westward at least to eastern Cherry Co (Brogie and Mossman 1983), including Valentine (Short 1961), but rare along the Niobrara River Valley westward to the eastern Pine Ridge. It is rare in the western Sandhills (Rosche 1982); westernmost Jun-Jul reports there are at Valentine NWR and NNF Bessey, Thomas Co.

In the Panhandle, it breeds in small numbers in Pine Ridge canyons and along tributaries of the White and Niobrara Rivers (Rosche 1982); a nest with recently-fledged young was found in West Ash Creek Canyon 8 Jun 2004 (Mollhoff 2005). In 2009 several birds were found in three BBA blocks in Dawes Co 13 Jun, including a nesting pair (Mollhoff 2016), and one was south of Chadron in Dawes Co 9 Jul 2016.

Eastern Phoebe is rare along the North Platte Valley west of Keith Co, where it is a rare summer resident (Rosche and Johnsgard 1984, Rosche 1994); the only Jun-Jul reports further west are: 10 Jun 1990 Garden Co, 1 Jul 1968 Scotts Bluff Co, 1 Jul 1981 Garden Co, and 29 Jul 2010 Morrill Co.

Mollhoff (2016) shows confirmed breeding throughout the Republican and French Creek Valleys; it had not been reported from the latter by Mollhoff (2001).

  • Breeding Phenology:
    Nest Building: 8-15 Apr
    Eggs: 5 Apr-11 Jul (usually double-brooded)
    Nestlings: 24 May-6 Jul
    Fledglings: 28 Jun-19 Sep

Fall:  summer <<<>>> Nov 3,4,4

Departure is in late Sep and early Oct, although in the east Eastern Phoebes may linger rather late: 9 Nov 1989 Sarpy Co (Grzybowski 1990) and 17 Nov 1991 Lancaster Co (Grzybowski 1992).  There are three CBC reports: 17 Dec 2000 at DeSoto (at Neale Woods), 26 Dec 1960 at Beatrice, Gage Co, and 27 Dec 1986 at Omaha, Douglas Co.

  • High counts:  8 at Lincoln Saline Wetlands Nature Park, Lancaster Co 4 Oct 2017, 6 at Schramm Park SRA 20 Sep 2003, and 6 in Otoe Co 24 Sep 2004.

Comments: Nests are typically constructed under bridges or abandoned or little-used buildings. In the Niobrara River Valley and at Valentine it breeds exclusively under bridges, which seems to be true in the northwest also (Rosche 1982). Short (1961) noted that where Say’s Phoebe occurred with Eastern Phoebe at Valentine, Say’s Phoebe utilized buildings only, while Eastern Phoebe was found at bridges. McClure (1946), however, found in central Nebraska that both species used bridges and buildings.

Abbreviations

BBA: Breeding Bird Atlas
BBS: Breeding Bird Survey
CBC: Christmas Bird Count
NNF: Nebraska National Forest
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum

Literature Cited

Brogie, M.A., and M.J. Mossman. 1983. Spring and summer birds of the Niobrara Valley Preserve, Nebraska: An annotated checklist. NBR 51: 44-51.

Bruner, L., R.H. Wolcott, and M.H. Swenk. 1904. A preliminary review of the birds of Nebraska, with synopses. Klopp and Bartlett, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Faulkner, D.W. 2010. Birds of Wyoming. Roberts and Company, Greenwood Village, Colorado, USA.

Grzybowski, J.A. 1990. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 44: 114-117.

Grzybowski, J.A. 1992. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 46: 113-117.

McClure, H.E. 1946. Phoebes in central Nebraska. Auk 63: 211-215.

Mollhoff, W.J. 2001. The Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas 1984-1989. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Papers No. 7. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Mollhoff, W.J. 2005. The 2003-2004 Nebraska nest report. NBR 73: 15-19.

Mollhoff, W.J. 2016. The Second Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas. Bull. Univ. Nebraska State Museum Vol 29. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I, Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.

Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Crawford, NE: Cottonwood Press.

Rosche, R.C., and P.A. Johnsgard. 1984. Birds of Lake McConaughy and the North Platte River Valley, Oshkosh to Keystone. NBR 52: 26-35.

Rosche, R.C. 1994. Birds of the Lake McConaughy area and the North Platte River valley, Nebraska.  Published by the author, Chadron, Nebraska, USA.

Sauer, J.R., D.K. Niven, J.E. Hines, D.J. Ziolkowski, Jr, K.L. Pardieck, J.E. Fallon, and W.A. Link. 2017.  The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 – 2015 (Nebraska). Version 2.07. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA.

Short, L.L., Jr. 1961. Notes on bird distribution in the central Plains. NBR 29: 2-22.

Weeks Jr., H.P. 2011. Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.94

Recommended Citation

Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2018.  Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org


Birds of Nebraska – Online