Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides, L. l. migrans
Status: Fairly common regular spring and fall migrant statewide. Fairly common regular breeder central and west, uncommon east. Rare regular winter visitor southeast, rare casual elsewhere.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM6750, 5 Jun 1901 Warbonnet Canyon, Sioux Co.
Taxonomy: Various subspecies treatments are in use (Pyle 1997, Gill and Donsker 2017, Clements 2016). The treatment used by Dickinson (2003) is followed here. There are eight subspecies recognized, three of which are restricted to California islands and one to Mexico. The others are: excubitorides of central Canada and the central and western USA, migrans of eastern North America, ludovicianus of coastal southeast USA, and miamensis of south Florida.
Most of the breeding Loggerhead Shrikes in Nebraska are probably intergrades of the Great Plains and arid Southwest subspecies excubitorides and the widespread North American subspecies migrans (Rapp et al 1958). Those in the western half of the state may be fairly pure excubitorides, and those in the east mostly intergrades.
Changes Since 2000: Loggerhead Shrike numbers appear to have declined sharply in Nebraska in recent years, especially in areas dominated by row crop agriculture. Mollhoff (2016) stated the species was reported in 11% fewer blocks between the first (1986-1991) and second (2007-2012) BBA projects despite a marked increase in survey efforts during the second BBA. BBS trend data shows a notable annual decline of – 3.23 (95% C.I.; -4.48, -1.97) during the period 1966-2015 and a similar annual decline of -3.35% (95% C.I.; -7.07, 0.06) during the period 2005-2017 (Sauer et al 2017). See discussion in Summer.
Spring: Mar 17,17,17 <<<>>> summer
This species winters in the southeast, and so dates above are away from the winter range mapped above. There are earlier dates 1 Mar in the northern Panhandle (Rosche 1982), 11 Mar 2011 Phelps Co, and 11 Mar 2007 Harlan Co.
- High counts: 29 in Keith Co 24 Apr 1999, 29 in the Panhandle 25 Apr 1999, and 23 there 1 May 2004.
Summer: Loggerhead Shrikes are most numerous in western Nebraska and the Panhandle, where pure excubitorides likely occurs; the population of this subspecies may be maintaining its numbers better than eastern birds, mostly migrans and intergrades between the two subspecies. Indeed, the BBS Trend Map for 1966-2013 shows that western Nebraska populations increased at >1.5% per year, and in the rest of the state declined at >1.5% per year.
The decline in Loggerhead Shrike numbers in agricultural areas of Nebraska indicated by such data has been attributed by various authors (for example, Yosef 1996) to habitat destruction and pesticide use. That these causes may indeed be operative in intensively cropped eastern and southern Nebraska is suggested by the fact that the lowest breeding numbers are in that area; lowest numbers for the state are in the Rainwater Basin, where Jorgensen (2012) considered the species a rare summer resident, formerly more common.
- Breeding Phenology:
Nest building: 29 Mar
Eggs: 4 May-14 Jun
Nestlings: 17 May-3 Jul
Fledglings: 12 May-16 Aug
- High counts: 16 south of Exit 1 on Interstate 80 on 11 Jul 1998, 14 in southwest Kimball Co 8 Aug 1998, and 11 in Box Butte Co 16 Jun 1995.
There were 10 birds in three family groups in about five miles of Dodge Co road 1 Jul 2009.
Fall: summer <<<>>> Oct 29,29,31
This species winters in the southeast, and so dates above are away from the winter range mapped above. Later dates away from the Panhandle (see below) are 4 Nov 1994 Dixon Co, 14 Nov 2011 Custer Co, 13 Dec 1997 Sutherland Reservoir, Lincoln Co, 14 Dec 2017 Harlan Co Reservoir CBC, 18 Dec 1994 Loup City, Loup Co, 18 Dec 1998 Harlan Co, 1 Jan 1996 Sherman Co (Brogie 1997), and 2 Jan 2005 Beaver Valley CBC, Boone Co. Some of these dates may be of birds attempting to overwinter (see Winter).
Departure in the Panhandle occurs by mid-Oct, although there are later reports, none documented, 3 Nov 1995 Scotts Bluff Co, 11 Nov 1967 Scotts Bluff Co, 11 Nov 1996 Scotts Bluff Co, and 25 Nov 1996 Crescent Lake NWR, Garden Co.
- High counts: 10 at Crescent Lake NWR 15 Aug 2015.
There are usually fewer than three reports most winters and in recent years reports are less-than-annual away from the extreme southeast as mapped above. CBC counts held in the first or second weeks of the count period recorded only around one bird per 100 party-hours. There is a specimen, UNSM ZM17545, taken 10 Jan 1997 in Butler Co, and one was photographed in Dodge Co 10 Jan 2008. Additional mid-winter reports away from the southeast are 15 Jan 2013 Valley Co, 21 Jan 2001 Dixon Co, 15 Feb 2015 Franklin Co, and 22 Feb 2004 Furnas Co.
In the Panhandle, where it is “best to treat all wintering shrikes as Northerns, unless convincing published details or collected specimens prove otherwise” (Rosche 1982), there are no mid-winter records.
BBA: Breeding Bird Atlas
BBS: Breeding Bird Survey
CBC: Christmas Bird Count
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
Photograph (top) of a Loggerhead Shrike near Papillion, Sarpy Co 10 Apr 2005 by Phil Swanson.
Brogie, M.A. 1997. 1996 (Eighth) Report of the NOU Records Committee. NBR 65: 115-126.
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, accessed 30 January 2018.
Dickinson, E.C. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
Gill, F., and D. Donsker (Eds). 2017. IOC World Bird List (v 7.3), accessed 30 January 2018.
Jorgensen, J.G. 2012. Birds of the Rainwater Basin, Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2016. The Second Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas. Bull. Univ. Nebraska State Museum Vol 29. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I, Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.
Rapp, W.F. Jr., J.L.C. Rapp, H.E. Baumgarten, and R.A. Moser. 1958. Revised checklist of Nebraska birds. Occasional Papers 5, Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union, Crete, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Cottonwood Press, Crawford, Nebraska, USA.
Sauer, J.R., D.K. Niven, J.E. Hines, D.J. Ziolkowski, Jr, K.L. Pardieck, J.E. Fallon, and W.A. Link. 2017. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 – 2015 (Nebraska). Version 2.07. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA.
Yosef, R. 1996. Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.231
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2018. Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org
Birds of Nebraska – Online