Status: Common regular spring and fall migrant and breeder statewide.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM6454, 7 Jun 1901 Gage Co.
Taxonomy: There are six subspecies recognized by most authorities (Gill and Donsker 2017, Pyle 1997), four restricted to Mexico and Central America, and two in the USA: serripennis of southeast Alaska and southern Canada south to west-central, south-central, and southeast USA, and psammochroa (for gender agreement, see Dickinson and Christidis 2014) of the southwest USA to southwest Mexico. Nebraska birds are presumed serripennis.
Spring: Mar 30, Apr 1, 1 <<<>>> summer
Peak migration occurs in mid-May.
- High counts: 317 in Dixon Co 11 May 1996, 250 at Fremont, Dodge Co 5 May 1999, and 235 in Lancaster Co 12 May 2002.
Summer: Breeding birds are distributed fairly evenly over the state, except perhaps for parts of the north and northwest. Rosche (1982) considered it “uncommon” as a breeder in the northwest, and Bray (1994) assigned it similar status at NNF Halsey.
Preferred nesting habitat is dirt or sand banks and road cuts near wooded rivers and streams, although a group of 6-8 nests was located on rock walls at Indian Cave SP, Richardson Co in 2002 (Mollhoff 2004). An unusual concentration of nesting birds was a colony of about 40 nests in Lancaster Co in 1982 (Williams 1982).
- Breeding Phenology:
Nest Building: 21 Apr
Eggs: 26 May-28 Jun
Nestlings: 25 May- 29 Jun
- High counts: 300 in southern Lincoln Co 6 Jul 2002.
Fall: summer <<<>>> Oct 17, 18, 19 (east), summer <<<>>> Oct 3, 4, 4 (elsewhere)
Peak migration probably is 23 Aug-15 Sep, according to Johnsgard (1980) and High Counts (below). Departure is generally completed by early Oct over most of the state, but some two weeks later in the east. De Jong (1996) suggested that eastern birds in North America delay migration due to earlier initiation of pre-basic molt than in western birds (Rocky Mountains westward). There are later reports 30 Oct 1980 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, 30 Oct 1988 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, 31 Oct 1986 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, 8 Nov 1981 Douglas-Sarpy Cos and 21 Nov 1993 Sarpy Co.
Flocks begin to form in Jul, with small groups eventually joining larger aggregations. One hundred were estimated in a flock at Lake Wanahoo, Saunders Co 8 Jul 2018, several small groups totaling about 200 birds were in Nemaha Co 25 Jul 2010, and 85 were at Jack Sinn WMA, Lancaster Co 15 Jul 2012.
- High counts: 1000 in Cherry Co 25 Aug, 550 in northeast Otoe Co 6 Aug 2000, 310 at Nebraska City, Otoe Co 16 Sep 2006 and “hundreds” there 13 Aug 1996.
NNF: Nebraska National Forest
SP: State Park
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
WMA: Wildlife Management Area (State)
Photograph (top) of a Northern Rough-winged Swallow at Fontenelle Forest,Sarpy County 3 May 2011 by Phil Swanson.
Bray, T.E., B.K. Padelford, and W.R. Silcock. 1986. The birds of Nebraska: A critically evaluated list. Bellevue, Nebraska, USA.
De Jong, M.J. 1996. Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.234.
Dickinson, E.C., and L. Christidis, eds. 2014. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Fourth edition Vol. 2. Aves Press, Eastbourne, UK.
Gill, F., and D. Donsker (Eds). 2017. IOC World Bird List (v 7.3), accessed 30 January 2018.
Johnsgard, P.A. 1980. A preliminary list of the birds of Nebraska and adjacent Great Plains states. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2004. The 2002 Nebraska Nesting Report. NBR 72: 153-158.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I, Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Cottonwood Press, Crawford, Nebraska, USA.
Williams, F. 1982. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 36: 992-995.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2018. Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org