Melospiza georgiana georgiana, M. g. ericrypta
Status: Common regular spring and fall migrant east and central, uncommon west. Uncommon regular breeder north-central, rare casual elsewhere. Rare regular winter visitor southeast and Republican River Valley, rare casual elsewhere.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM7526, 15 Dec 1889, Lincoln, Lancaster Co.
Taxonomy: Three subspecies are recognized (Pyle 1997, AOU 1957): ericrypta, breeding from Northwest Territories and southeast British Columbia east to Newfoundland and Quebec, wintering California to Florida, georgiana, breeding from eastern South Dakota and central Nebraska to Missouri and east to New Brunswick and West Virginia, wintering to Texas and Florida, and nigrescens, breeding in coastal New Jersey to Maryland.
According to AOU (1957), georgiana breeds west to central Nebraska. Subspecies ericrypta occurs during migration (Rapp et al 1958; Johnston 1965). Wintering birds are thought to be northern breeders (erycripta?) replacing more southerly breeders (georgiana?) that depart in winter (Herbert and Mowbray 2020). None of the UNSM specimens are identified to subspecies.
Spring: Mar 23, 23, 24 <<<>>> May 14, 14, 15
Early dates above are away from known wintering areas (see Winter).
Later dates in the extreme southeast, from Douglas Co to Lancaster Co and south, where breeding is not known to occur, are 19 May 2014 Nemaha Co, 21 May 2018 Pawnee Lake SRA, Lancaster Co, 21 May 2018 Lincoln Saline Wetlands NP, Lancaster Co, and 28 May 2011 Nemaha Co.
Migration is from late Mar through mid-May, peaking around 20 Apr.
Away from the east, migrants are rare and not often detected away from breeding sites. In the east they are more numerous and are often found in flocks with other sparrow species. Potential summering birds may not arrive in areas in the central north of the Platte River Valley until after northern migrants have passed through (Herbert and Mowbray 2020).
- High counts: 25 at Fontenelle Forest, Sarpy Co 21 Apr 2009, 24 at Little Salt Fork Marsh, Lancaster 14 Apr 2019, and 22 at Chalco Hills RA, Sarpy Co 11 Apr 2019.
Summer: Although AOU (1957) stated that this species breeds west to central Nebraska, it is “very local” in its distribution (Johnsgard 1979), occurring mostly in the north, with isolated peripheral breeding sites, notably the Platte River Whooping Crane Trust area in Hall Co. The breeding range of Swamp Sparrow is not well defined in the state and is largely based on the presence of singing males at cattail marshes during the summer. Confirmed breeding records are few. Mollhoff (2001, 2016) indicated little change between the two breeding bird atlas periods; in the first period, 1984-1989, breeding was confirmed mainly from the Loup River drainage north, in Brown, Rock, Loup, Wheeler, and Boone Cos, and in the second period, 2006-2011, in Rock and Valley Cos, as well as in the Platte River Valley in Hall and Lincoln Cos. Singles in southeast Sherman Co 17 Jun and 5 Aug 2018 may have been local breeders. Nesting occurred in Blaine Co in 1991 (Grzybowski 1991) and in Rock Co in 1985 (Williams 1985).
There are few reports from northeast Cherry Co; nesting occurred at Cody Lake, Cherry Co in 1988 (Grzybowski 1988) and summering birds were found at Valentine NWR 27 Aug 2014, 29 May and 6 Aug 2016, and at four locations (eight birds) in the NWR 30 Jun-26 Jul 2022.
There have been reports from Lincoln Co since 1948, and more recently in Dawson Co. Since 1991 there have been summering birds at a marsh on the Platte River near the North Platte Airport; this is the site of recent confirmed breeding (Mollhoff 2016). Ten singing males were along Whitehorse Creek in Lincoln Co 21 May 2005, two were in Lincoln Co 16 Jul 2017, and three were at Cody Park, North Platte 30 Jun 2018. Up to three were in wetlands just north of North Platte 20 Jun-15 Jul 2020. In Dawson Co, 1-2 were at Bittern’s Call WMA 24 Jun and 6 Jul 2020, and one was there 13 Jul 2021.
There are reports from the Lake McConaughy area in Keith Co since 1991; it was a regular summer resident in the Clear Creek Marshes and Lewellen area (Rosche and Johnsgard 1994, Rosche 1994). On 29-30 Jul 2000, 5-6 were at the west end of Lake McConaughy, seven were there 17 Jun 2001, and 11 on Jun 2007. A nest with six eggs was photographed there 11 Jun 2006 (Dinsmore; Mollhoff 2006). A singing bird was in southeastern Garden Co 28 Jul 2020.
Mollhoff (2016) showed scattered breeding season reports in the Panhandle, but no confirmed breeding. Such records are rare, but most likely in the western Sandhills in Garden and Sheridan Cos. It had been reported regularly from Smith Lake, Sheridan Co (Rosche 1982); nesting was suspected in 1982 (Williams 1982), and singing males were present in 1997, 1998, 2000, and 2017, which is suggestive of breeding. There are no confirmed nesting records from Crescent Lake NWR, Garden Co; one was singing there 10 Aug 1994 (Silcock and Rosche 1994). At least two were singing at the Diamond Bar Ranch Pond, Logan Co 27 May 2017. There are four records for Grant Co, two at each of two sites: 9 Aug 2012 and 9 Aug 2019 at Doc Lake, and 6 Jun 2009 and 13 Jul 2015 at Avocet WMA (eBird.org).
Numbers are low in the northeast, but reports are from several locations. Birds seen 22 May 1994 in Knox Co were “maybe breeders” (Grzybowski 1994), but in 2020 two were at Niobrara RA 13 Jun, two were near Creighton 1 Jul, and one on 876 Road 18 Jul. In 2020, two were in northern Antelope Co 1 Jul, and four were along Beaver Valley Road, Boone Co 28 Jul. In the Elkhorn River Valley, three singing birds were at Wood Duck WMA, Stanton Co 13 Jul 2003 and one was there 2 Jul 2018; numbers there are increasing, with up to eight counted 6 Jun-18 Jul 2020 and five in 2022. Elsewhere in the Elkhorn River Valley, one was at Enola Lake, Madison Co 27 Jun 2020. Two were near Meadow Grove, Madison Co 6 Jul 2018, and there is another Stanton Co report 6 Jul 1988. One was in Dixon Co 14 Jul 2017.
In the central Platte River Valley, summering birds were first noted during censuses by Lingle (1996), and breeding season surveys conducted annually since 2015 on Platte River Crane Trust properties in Hall Co have yielded surprising numbers of Swamp Sparrow, including 47 detections, mostly of singing males, in 2021 alone (Caven 2021). Nests with eggs were found 9 May 2007 and 21-26 Jun 2008 on Crane Trust property (Mollhoff 2022).
South of the Platte River Valley, a small number of birds were found at Funk WPA, Phelps Co beginning 16 Jun 1991; best counts there were 20 on 5 Jul 1999 and 11 on 11 Jul 2002, but there have been no reports since 2002. A single bird was at Sacramento-Wilcox WMA, Phelps Co 7 Jul 2001, one was singing at Harvard WPA, Clay Co 20-25 Jul 2009, one was singing at Johnson WPA, Phelps Co, 5 Aug 2001, and 1-2 were at Tamora WPA and North Lake Basin WMA, both in Seward Co, 31 Jul 2017. One was in Fillmore Co 31 Jul 2021. It also breeds on occasion at Jack Sinn WMA, Lancaster Co; there is a report 1 Aug 1976 Lancaster Co. Singles along the Kearney Hike-Bike Trail, Buffalo Co 24 Aug and 13 Sep 2021 may have been local breeders.
- Breeding phenology:
Nest building: 24 May
Eggs: 29 May-26 Jun
Fledglings: 10-23 Jun
Fall: Sep 17, 18, 19 <<<>>> Nov 18, 20, 21
An earlier date in the extreme southeast, from Douglas Co to Lancaster Co and south, where breeding is not known to occur, is 12 Sep 2020 Cass Co.
Last dates above are away from the extreme southeast and Republican River Valley. A later date is 23 Nov 2021 Nance Co.
Migration is from mid-late Sep through early Nov. There are specimens 11 Aug 1936 UNSM ZM7533 Logan Co, and 2 Sep 1936 UNSM ZM7532 Logan Co.
There are numerous late Nov-early Jan reports and CBC reports are common in the southeast, where there are reports most years since 1967. Elsewhere there are these reports: 18-19 Dec 1992 Keith Co (Rosche 1994), 19 Dec 2009 North Platte CBC, 22 Dec 2018 Madison Co, 26 Dec 1987 Sioux City CBC (one; in Dakota Co), 26 Dec 2020 Dundy Co, 27 Dec 1985-1 Jan 1986 Boone Co, one on 27 Dec 1985 Beaver Valley, Boone Co CBC, 29 Dec 1964 Scotts Bluff Co, 30 Dec 2000 Lake Ogallala, Keith Co, 1 Jan 1957 Lincoln Co, 3 Jan 2021 North Platte WTP, Lincoln Co, and 4 Jan 2020 Keith Co. There are four reports of 1-2 on the Lake McConaughy CBC, Keith Co, 19 Dec 1991, 27 Dec 2014, 29 Dec 2012, and 30 Dec 2018.
- High counts: 35 at Little Salt Fork Marsh, Lancaster Co 9 Oct 2016, 30 at Neale Woods, Douglas Co 15 Oct 1999, and 26 in Cuming Co 3 Oct 2021.
Winter: Swamp Sparrows linger into early winter unless very cold weather pushes birds farther south; reports in Dec are cited under Fall. Reports into late Jan and early Feb are not unusual but reports of overwintering or birds attempting to overwinter are likely only in the extreme southeast and Republican River Valley.
Winter (6 Jan-20 Mar) records away from the extreme southeast and Republican River Valley are few: 22 Jan 2000 Niobrara Marsh, Knox Co, 25 Jan 1996 Lake Alice, Scotts Bluff Co, 7 Feb 1997 Stateline Island WMA, Scotts Bluff Co, 14 Feb 2018 North Platte, Lincoln Co, 20 Feb 2000 Kiowa WMA, Scotts Bluff Co, 20-21 Feb 2019 Nuckolls Co, and 3 Mar 2006 Rock Creek Lake SRA, Dundy Co.
CBC: Christmas Bird Count
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
SP: State Park
SRA: State Recreation Area
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
WMA: Wildlife Management Area (State)
WPA: Waterfowl Production Area (Federal)
American Ornithologists’ Union [AOU]. 1957. The AOU Check-list of North American birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Caven, A.J. 2021. 2021 Species Detection, Collection, and Monitoring Report. Crane Trust, Wood River, Nebraska, USA.
Grzybowski, J.A. 1988. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 42: 1308-1310.
Grzybowski, J.A. 1991. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 45: 1132-1134.
Grzybowski, J.A. 1994. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 48: 313-315.
Herbert, J.A. and T.B. Mowbray. 2020. Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.swaspa.01.
Johnsgard, P.A. 1979. Birds of the Great Plains: breeding species and their distribution. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Johnston, R.F. 1965. A directory to the birds of Kansas. Miscellaneous Publication No. 41. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Lingle, G. 1996. 1995 Breeding bird census—Wetland sedge meadow I and II, subirrigated grassland and native hay. Journal of Field Ornithology 67: 76–77 (supplement).
Mollhoff, W.J. 2001. The Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas 1984-1989. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Papers No. 7. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2006. The 2006 Nebraska Nest Report. NBR 74: 142-147.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2016. The Second Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas. Bull. Univ. Nebraska State Museum Vol 29. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2022. Nest records of Nebraska birds. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Paper Number 9.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I, Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.
Rapp, W.F. Jr., J.L.C. Rapp, H.E. Baumgarten, and R.A. Moser. 1958. Revised checklist of Nebraska birds. Occasional Papers 5, Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union, Crete, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Cottonwood Press, Crawford, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1994. Birds of the Lake McConaughy area and the North Platte River valley, Nebraska. Published by the author, Chadron, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C., and P.A. Johnsgard. 1984. Birds of Lake McConaughy and the North Platte River Valley, Oshkosh to Keystone. NBR 52: 26-35.
Tout, W. 1947. Lincoln County birds. Published by the author, North Platte, Nebraska, USA.
Williams, F. 1977. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 31: 346-348.
Williams, F. 1982. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 36: 992-995.
Williams, F. 1985. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 39: 931-933.
Williams, F. 1988. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 42: 282-286.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2022. Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana). In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org
Birds of Nebraska – Online
Updated 31 Aug 2022