Tachycineta thalassina thalassina
Status: Uncommon regular spring and fall migrant west, rare casual central. Uncommon regular breeder west.
Documentation: UNSM ZM6449, 22 Jun 1901 Warbonnet Canyon, Sioux Co.
Taxonomy: Two subspecies are currently recognized (Pyle 1997, Brown et al 2020, Clements et al 2017): thalassina (including lepida) from Alaska and Canada south through western USA to central Baja California and southern Mexico, and brachyptera of northwest Mexico. Nebraska birds are thalassina.
Spring: Apr 14, 15, 17 <<<>>> summer
Arrival is in late Apr, although there is an earlier report 6 Apr 2013 Scotts Bluff Co. Johnsgard (1980) indicated that peak migration is 5-19 May, and there are seven reports of 1-11 birds 18-31 May (eBird, accessed October 2017) from the Bighorn Escarpment in Morrill and Banner Cos, where breeding is unknown.
Migrants are rarely observed away from known breeding locations; there are these reports ranging northeast to Cherry Co: 29 Apr 1989 Keith Co (Johnsgard 1990), 5 May 2002 Lake McConaughy, Keith Co, 16 May 2002 Scotts Bluff Co, 10 on 17 May 2015 Valentine, Cherry Co, 19 May 2015 Fort Niobrara NWR, Cherry Co, 1 Jun 2016 Whiteclay, Sheridan Co, 1 Jun 2015 Smith Lake WMA, Sheridan Co, and 3 Jun 2013 Valentine. The only documented report further east is of one at Harlan Co Reservoir, Harlan Co 8 May 1997. Bruner et al (1904) noted that this species was “once taken during migration at West Point by Bruner,” presumably the Cuming Co report cited by Johnsgard (1980). No specimen apparently exists however, and this report remains unsubstantiated.
- High counts: 40 at Carter Johnson Reservoir, Dawes Co 19 May 2018, 39+ at Scottsbluff SL, Scotts Bluff Co 16 May 2002, 15 near Chadron, Dawes Co 23 May 2020, and 14 at Chadron Creek Ranch WMA, Dawes Co 25 May 2020.
Summer: Breeding is restricted to the Pine Ridge in Sioux and Dawes Cos, and the Wildcat Hills and Scotts Bluff NM in Scotts Bluff Co. Nesting is not known in the Bighorn Escarpment in Banner and Morrill Cos; the only reports from there are of presumed spring migrants.
Rosche (1982) considered this species a “locally fairly common summer resident,” most common in Sioux Co Pine Ridge canyons. The easternmost record of nesting may be that cited by Rosche (1982) of a pair using a woodpecker hole in Chadron SP, Dawes Co in 1981; two were at Chadron Creek WMA, Dawes Co 29 Jul 2012, and two were in West Ash Creek Canyon, Dawes Co 20 Jun 2008. It breeds in the Wildcat Hills in southern Scotts Bluff Co (Rapp et al 1958); two nests with five eggs in each were in nest boxes at Wildcat Hills NC in 2002.
One at Pine Bluffs, Kimball 17 Jun 2019 (eBird.org) was unexpected there; breeding is not indicated in that area by Faulkner (2010).
- Breeding Phenology:
Nest Building: 31 May
Eggs: 15-25 Jun
Nestlings: 30 Jun-24 Jul
- High counts: 39 at Scotts Bluff NM 17 Jul 2013.
Fall: summer <<<>>> Aug 26, 26, 29
Departure is in mid-Aug, although there are later reports 5 Sep 1973 Sioux Co, three on 7 Sep 2009 at Chadron SP, five on 9 Sep 2018 Banner Co, 19 Sep 2009 Scotts Bluff Co, 20 Sep 2017 Scotts Bluff NM, Scotts Bluff Co, and 21 Sep 2016 Scotts Bluff Co.
There is some flocking prior to migration (Brown et al 2011), although there are no Nebraska reports of flocks larger than 30 birds. In southeast Garden Co, 18 were at Clear Creek WMA 17 Jul 2015, and 5-12 birds were south of Gering, Scotts Bluff Co 25-28 Jul 1994. An early undocumented report 8 Jul 1987 Keith Co may have been a fall transient (Rosche 1994), as may have been two at Oliver Reservoir, Kimball Co 4 Jul 2018.
As in spring, there are few reports away from breeding areas, all in the period 17 Jul-29 Aug: 9 Aug 1995 Garden Co, 11 Aug 1974 Sheridan Co (Rosche 1982), 26 Aug 1979 Garden Co, 28 Aug 1993 Dawes Co, and 29 Aug 1986 Garden Co (Rosche 1994).
- High counts: 30 south of Gering 23 Aug 1998, 20 at Wildcat Hills NC 28 Jul 2017, and 15 south of Gering 2 Aug 1996.
NC: Nature Center
NM: National Monument
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
SL: Sewage Lagoons
SP: State Park
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
WMA: Wildlife Management Area (State)
Photograph (top) of a Violet-green Swallow in West Ash Creek Canyon, Dawes Co 14 Jul 2003 courtesy of NEBRASKALAND/Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.
Brown, C. ., A. . Knott, and E.J. Damrose. 2020. Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.vigswa.01.
Bruner, L., R.H. Wolcott, and M.H. Swenk. 1904. A preliminary review of the birds of Nebraska, with synopses. Klopp and Bartlett, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
Clements, J.F., T.S. Schulenberg, M.J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T.A. Fredericks, B.L. Sullivan, and C.L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016.
Faulkner, D. 2010. Birds of Wyoming. Roberts and Company, Greenwood Village, Colorado.
Johnsgard, P.A. 1980. A preliminary list of the birds of Nebraska and adjacent Great Plains states. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Johnsgard, P.A. 1990. Additional observations of the birds of the Lake McConaughy region. NBR 58: 52-54.
Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I, Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.
Rapp, W.F. Jr., J.L.C. Rapp, H.E. Baumgarten, and R.A. Moser. 1958. Revised checklist of Nebraska birds. Occasional Papers 5, Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union. Crete, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Cottonwood Press, Crawford, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1994. Birds of the Lake McConaughy area and the North Platte River valley, Nebraska. Chadron, Nebraska, USA.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2020. Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org