Spatula cyanoptera septentrionalium
Status: Fairly common regular spring migrant west and central, uncommon east. Locally uncommon regular breeder west, rare casual elsewhere. Rare regular summer visitor east. Rare regular fall migrant west, rare casual elsewhere.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM7673, 4 Apr 1909 Fillmore Co.
Taxonomy: This species was recently moved to genus Spatula from Anas, based on genetic studies (Chesser et al 2017).
There are five subspecies (Gill et al 2022), four in South America and one, septentrionalium, in North America.
Nebraska birds are presumed septentrionalium.
Hybrids with Blue-winged Teal are regularly observed; for Nebraska records see Blue-winged Teal x Cinnamon Teal (hybrid). There is a single Nebraska record of a hybrid with Northern Shoveler: see Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler (hybrid).
Spring: Mar 10, 10, 11 <<<>>> summer
Usual arrival is in late Mar, and numbers peak in late Apr and early May. There are earlier reports 22 Feb 2020 Keith Co, 24 Feb 1956 Adams Co, 28 Feb 2021 (2) Lewellen, Garden Co, 1 Mar 1995 Clay Co, 1 Mar 2016 Webster Co, 5 Mar 2018 Harlan Co, 8 Mar 1981 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, and 8 Mar 2020 Garden Co.
Late easterly dates of presumed migrants are 23 May 2020 Lancaster Co, 23 May 2019 Douglas Co, 24 May 1952 Lancaster Co, 29-30 May 2004 Douglas Co, 31 May 2016 Lancaster Co, and 2 Jun 1985 Lancaster Co.
It appears to be a regular migrant as far east as the Rainwater Basin (Jorgensen 2012). It is rare but increasingly reported as a spring migrant east of the Rainwater Basin, possibly a result of due to increased observer scrutiny of migrant duck flocks; there are at least 80 reports, mostly of males which are easier to identify than females, including totals of eight in 2019 and six in spring 2013.
- High counts: 50 at Kiowa WMA, Scotts Bluff Co 22 Apr 2007, 20 there 6 May 2000, 15-20 there 9 Apr 2005, and 16 there 9 Apr 1999.
Summer: Rosche (1994) noted that Chet and Jane Fleisbach WMA, Morrill Co, and Kiowa WMA, Scotts Bluff Co are regular breeding locations for this species; 19 were at Kiowa WMA 14 Jun 2000. It also occurs regularly at Crescent Lake NWR, Garden Co during the summer months, although the population may be fewer than one dozen individuals (Fred Zeillemaker, personal communication) and as few as two breeding pairs (Marlin French; Mollhoff 2022). Evidence for breeding at Crescent Lake NWR includes a nest containing eight eggs in a grass-sedge meadow 10 Jun 1937 (Bennett 1937), several records of downy young including in 1974 (Bennett 1975), and a nest with eggs found 24 May 1984 but which was predated on 11 Jun (Helsinger 1985).
Elsewhere, breeding has not been confirmed, although there are multiple breeding season reports from suitable locations in the Panhandle and the Rainwater Basin (Jorgensen 2012). Away from these two areas, summer reports are few, mostly in the western half of the state and Rainwater Basin, easternmost 12-16 Jul 1984 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, 25 Jul 2020 Butler Co, 28 Jul 2018 molting male Polk Co, and 11 Aug 2015 Lancaster Co. An extremely late pair in Pierce Co 4-8 Nov 1986 “may have nested” (eBird.org, accessed Apr 2023).
A group of six (five males and one female) were at a flooded field in Box Butte Co 13 Jul 2015.
- Breeding Phenology:
Eggs: 1-11 Jun (Mollhoff 2022)
Fall: summer <<<>>> Sep 19, 21, 22
This species does not undergo a molt migration (Baldassarre 2014). There are only about 30 reports for Sep and later, possibly because males in eclipse plumage are inconspicuous and leave the state soon after regaining flight.
Reports in late Jul away from known breeding locations are likely fall dispersers, such as two in Phelps Co 26 Jul 2023 and one at Harrison SL, Sioux Co 27 Jul 2023. Last dates for summer residents at Crescent Lake NWR were 12, 17, and 27 Jul (Roger Sharpe, personal communication); two there 11 Sep 2021.
Later reports are 26 Sep 2021 Lake Alice, Scotts Bluff Co, 26 Sep 2022 Lake McConaughy, Keith Co, 29 Sep 1990 Scotts Bluff Co, 6 Oct 2020 Scotts Bluff Co (details), 7 Oct 2022 Scottsbluff WTP, Scotts Bluff Co, 7 Oct 2022 Gering WTP, Scotts Bluff Co, 10 Oct 1968 Brown Co, 10 Oct 1988 Cherry Co, 13 Oct 2004 Scottsbluff WTP, 13 Oct 2020 Lincoln Co (details), 14 Oct 1995 Crescent Lake NWR, 22 Oct 2022 Lake McConaughy, 4-8 Nov 1986 Pierce Co, 14 Nov 1976 Cass Co (Williams 1977), 8-27 Nov 1987 Pierce Co, a male 9 Dec 2001 Medicine Creek Reservoir, Frontier Co, 20 Dec 1980 Scotts Bluff Co (CBC; no details), and one shot along the Platte River in Cass Co in Dec 1975 (Cortelyou 1976).
Easterly reports in fall are less than annual, likely due to this species appearing very similar to Blue-winged Teal during and after the pre-alternate molt into “eclipse” plumage (Howell 2010). An apparent pair was at Branched Oak Lake, Lancaster Co 11 Aug 2015; the male was in transitional plumage. An eclipse male was identified by red eye and patches of remaining brown feathers in Butler Co 25 Jul 2020.
- High count: 14 at Lake Ogallala 16 Sep 2017.
CBC: Christmas Bird Count
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
WMA: Waterfowl Management Area (State)
WTP: Water Treatment Plant
Baldassarre, G. 2014. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Bennett, E.V. 1937. Breeding of the Cinnamon Teal in Garden County, Nebraska. NBR 5: 108-109.
Bennett, E.V. 1975. 1974 Nebraska nesting survey. NBR 43: 13-19.
Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 134: 751-773.
Cortelyou, R.G. 1976. 1975 (Eighteenth) Fall Occurrence Report. NBR 44: 19-30.
Gill, F., D. Donsker, and P. Rasmussen (Eds). 2022. IOC World Bird List (v 12.2). Doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.12.2. http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
Helsinger, M.J. 1985. Cinnamon Teal nest at Crescent Lake NWR. NBR 53: 80.
Howell, S.N.G. 2010. Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Jorgensen, J.G. 2012. Birds of the Rainwater Basin, Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2022. Nest records of Nebraska birds. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Paper Number 9.
Rosche, R.C. 1994. Birds of the Lake McConaughy area and the North Platte River valley, Nebraska. Published by the author, Chadron, Nebraska, USA.
Williams, F. 1977. Southern Great Plains Region. American Birds 31: 194-197.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2023. Cinnamon Teal (Spatula cyanoptera). In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org
Birds of Nebraska – Online
Updated 2 Sep 2023