Status: Common, locally abundant, regular spring and fall migrant statewide. Common regular breeder northcentral, rare Rainwater Basin, rare casual elsewhere. Uncommon casual summer visitor away from breeding range. Uncommon regular winter visitor west, south, east.
Documentation: Specimen: UNSM ZM7678, 27 Mar 1932 McCook, Red Willow Co.
Taxonomy: No subspecies are recognized.
Spring: Jan 29, 31, 31 <<<>>> Jun 3, 3, 4
Spring migration begins as water opens. The 209 on 29 Jan 2000 at Lake Ogallala, Keith Co were probably early migrants. Peak numbers occur in late Mar and migration is usually over by early May, although stragglers occur into early Jun. Late dates above are from locations where breeding was not known to have occurred, and there are later dates away from the expected breeding range: 9 Jun 1990 Knox Co, 12 Jun 2018 Howard Co, 13 Jun 1984 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, and 19 Jun 2010 Antelope Co.
Rosche (1982) considered the species to be a “very abundant” spring migrant (more than 1000 per day) in the Panhandle, noting large concentrations on Box Butte Reservoir, Dawes Co, and Smith Lake, Sheridan Co. Rosche (1994) noted high concentrations on Lake McConaughy, Keith Co (see High Counts). An impressive estimate of 40,500 was made in the eastern Rainwater Basin 31 Mar-1 Apr 2001.
- High counts: 40,500 in the eastern Rainwater Basin (34,000 of these at Harvard WPA, Phelps Co) 31 Mar-1 Apr 2001 (Jorgensen 2012), 15,000-20,000 at Lake McConaughy 21 Mar 1993 (Rosche 1994) and 14,000 there 24 Mar 1989 (Rosche 1994).
Summer: There are few reports of breeding away from the Sandhills range; confirmed reports have occurred only in the Rainwater Basin and in Dawson and Keith Cos.
Breeding records in the Rainwater Basin are as follows. A hen and brood were in York Co 30 Jun-1 Jul 2001 (Jorgensen 2012), a nest with 12 eggs apparently of this species (12 adults were present) was at Harvard WPA, Clay Co 2 Jun 2007, a brood including five young was at North Lake Basin WMA, Seward Co 16 Aug 2015 and two hens each with broods was observed at Marsh Duck WMA, York Co 9 and 16 August (Jorgensen 2016). The only other indications of breeding in the Rainwater Basin are an old record of eggs found in 1916 in Clay Co (Ducey 1988) and “confirmed” nesting in York Co but without details (Mollhoff 2001).
Apparently a first breeding record for Keith Co was the presence of “broods” below Keystone Dam 19 Jul 2003; a single was there 10 Jul 2012. In Dawson Co, a hen with a brood was photographed at Bittern’s Call WMA 2 Aug 2019.
There are multiple breeding season (Jun through mid-Aug) reports without confirmed breeding in the Rainwater Basin; since most molt migration is northward from breeding areas to large lakes (Baldassarre 2014) and both males and females occur in approximately equal numbers, these birds are probably one-year-old non-breeders (see Fall). Unusually large numbers of several hundred congregated in the Rainwater Basin throughout the summer of 2019 when wetland possessed extensive water (Jorgensen 2019); numbers peaked in late Jul (see Fall).
Elsewhere, reports are few, most from counties near the breeding range; apart from those, there are several reports from Harlan Co: 26 Jun 2008 Harlan Co, 2-5 at Alma SL, Harlan Co 23 Jun-1 Jul, three on 28 Jul 1998 Alma SL, two on 4-18 Aug 2001 Alma SL, nine on 4 Aug 2002 Alma SL, and “summer” 2004 Alma SL. There are several reports from Douglas, Sarpy, and Lancaster Cos also, probably reflective of the numerous observers in those counties: 13 Jun 1984 Douglas-Sarpy Cos, 8 Jul 2003 Lancaster Co, 8 Jul 2014 Lancaster Co, 9 Jul 2015 Lancaster Co, 16 Jul 1971 Lancaster Co, and 6 Aug 1972 Douglas-Sarpy Cos. Elsewhere, isolated reports are 9 Jun 1990 Knox Co, 19 Jun 2010 Antelope Co, 10 Jul 1992 Cheyenne Co, and 4 Aug 2008 North Platte SL, Lincoln Co.
- Breeding phenology:
Eggs/Incubation: 2 Jun-14 Jul.
Nestlings: 17 Jul.
Dependent Fledglings: 4 Jun-19 Jul.
Fall: Sep 13,15,18<<<>>>Jan 10,11,12
There are earlier reports of small groups beginning in late Jun (see Summer). Nine were in Adams Co 26 Jun 2018, Funk WPA, Phelps Co, hosted 22-36 late Jun through mid-Jul in the years 1996-2000, as many as 126 were in the eastern Rainwater Basin 28 Jun 2003, and there was an influx into the Rainwater Basin beginning 27 Jun 2015, when 100 were estimated, peaking at 345 on 26 Jul; 242 of the latter were at Harvard WPA, but no evidence for breeding was noted. An even larger influx occurred in 2019 (Jorgensen 2019), when a total of about 725 were reported, also without evidence of breeding; peak count was 475 on 24 Jul. There are numerous additional reports statewide Jul-early Sep of small groups, most likely one-year-old non-breeders (see Summer).
Timing of peak numbers of true migrants varies, but largest numbers mostly occur in Oct and most leave the state by the end of Nov; some remain into Dec and early Jan. The 322 at Lake Ogallala 30-31 Dec 2011 was a large number for that late date.
Banding data show that birds from Saskatchewan and the Dakotas were recovered in Nebraska, presumably en route to Gulf of Mexico wintering areas (Baldassarre 2014).
- High counts: 3292 at North Platte NWR, Scotts Bluff Co on 10 Nov 1994, 2104 at Crescent Lake NWR, Garden Co 27 Sep 1995, and 1950 at Lake Ogallala 1 Nov 2000.
Winter: Redheads occur regularly in midwinter (Jan 13-30) at scattered locations in the North Platte and Platte River Valleys and southward, with irregular reports elsewhere in those river valleys. Largest counts at regular locations are 25 at Carter Lake, Omaha 2013-2014, 24 at Scottsbluff SL 23 Jan 2015, and 15 at Harlan Co Reservoir 1999-2000.
NWR: National Wildlife Refuge
SL: Sewage Lagoons
UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum
WMA: Waterfowl Management Area (State)
WPA: Waterfowl Production Area (Federal)
Baldassarre, G. 2014. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Ducey, J.E. 1988. Nebraska birds, breeding status and distribution. Simmons-Boardman Books, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
Jorgensen, J.G. 2012. Birds of the Rainwater Basin, Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Jorgensen, J.G. 2016. A summary of 2015 breeding bird surveys of selected Rainwater Basin wetlands. Nongame Bird Program of the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Jorgensen, J.G. 2019. The Summer Of Redheads. Blog post, Birds of Nebraska – Online, 8 Aug 2019.
Mollhoff, W.J. 2001. The Nebraska Breeding Bird Atlas 1984-1989. Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Occasional Papers No. 7. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1982. Birds of northwestern Nebraska and southwestern South Dakota, an annotated checklist. Cottonwood Press, Crawford, Nebraska, USA.
Rosche, R.C. 1994. Birds of the Lake McConaughy area and the North Platte River valley, Nebraska. Published by the author, Chadron, Nebraska, USA.
Silcock, W.R., and J.G. Jorgensen. 2018. Redhead (Aythya americana), Version 1.0. In Birds of Nebraska — Online. www.BirdsofNebraska.org
Birds of Nebraska – Online